Equal opportunity is very important to our nation, and the opportunity to compete is very valuable. Sports provide a wonderful foundation for the rest of our lives. Benefits of playing sports include gaining leadership skills, higher academic performance, increased self-esteem, increased health, and a more responsible social behavior that all stem from participating in sports.
What happens to a college that is cut off from federal funds? Title IX has been a controversial law involving amateur sports. Since it was enacted, the number and quality of female high school and college athletes have increased tremendously as a direct result of this federal law.
She enrolled at Duke University in the fall of and, upon enrolling, tried out for the football team as a walk-on kicker. She initially did not make the team and instead served as a manager for the football team during the season.
In the spring ofshe participated in conditioning drills with the football team and was selected by the seniors on the team to participate in the Blue-White Game, an intrasquad scrimmage played each spring.
In the game, Mercer kicked a yard game-winning field goal, giving the Blue team a,victory. Soon after the game, Duke head football coach Fred Goldsmith told the news media that Mercer was on the Duke football team.
Mercer did not play in any games during the season, but she regularly attended practices.
She was officially listed as a member of the Duke football team on the roster filed with the NCAA and she was pictured in the Duke football yearbook. Despite being officially listed as a member of the team, she was not allowed to dress for games or sit on the sidelines during games.
In the spring ofshe again participated in conditioning drills with the football team. It was during this latter period that Mercer alleged that she was subject to discriminatory treatment by Duke. Specifically, she claimed that Goldsmith did not permit her to attend summer camp, refused to allow her to dress for games or sit on the sidelines during games, and gave her fewer opportunities to participate in practices than other walk-on kickers.
She also claimed that Goldsmith made a number of offensive comments to her, such as wondering why she did not prefer to participate in beauty pageants rather than football and suggesting that she sit in the stands with her boyfriend rather than on the sideline.
At the beginning of the season, Goldsmith informed Mercer that she had been dropped from the team. Mercer filed suit against Duke inclaiming Duke football coaches cut her from the football team because she is a woman and treated her differently from male players; thus, the university violated Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of prohibiting gender discrimination.
Under Title IX, Duke was not required to permit her to try out for a contact sport like football, but if she was permitted to try by the football coach, she needed to be treated the same as any other student athlete who tried out.
Duke argued that Mercer was cut from the team based on her abilities. What is the purpose of college athletics? Title IX is often referred to as the gender equity statute. Some say Title IX as the necessary equivalent of affirmative action for women in sports.
Others argue that Title IX is an unjust quota system that punishes male athletes and programs. Title VII provides that an employer may not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Title IX extends that same philosophy to any program that receives funding from the federal government: It must not discriminate on the basis of gender when it comes to applying the funds to sports programs.You may login with either your assigned username or your e-mail address.
Part 4: Since Title IX’s inception in , women and girls have made great strides in obtaining gender equity, not only in the classroom but also on the playing field. Part 5: TThere is nothing in Title IX or its policies that require schools to cut or reduce men’s opportunities in order to be Title IX compliant.
Part I presents a brief overview of Title IX, which makes clear its limitations in securing gender equity. Part II.A discusses the declining representation and lower success rate of women coaches, while Part II.B explores the areas of Title IX (and accompanying federal statutory provisions) that have sought to secure their equal treatment.
Before Title IX, this was perfectly legal. Now, more women than men are enrolled in college, and more women are going into careers previously geared toward men in science and technology fields.
2. Career education – Were there boys in your high school home economics class? Girls in the shop class? That wouldn’t have been possible without Title IX. Overview of Title IX of the Education Amendments of On June 23, , the President signed Title IX of the Education Amendments of , 20 U.S.C.
Â§ et seq., into law. Title IX is a comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity. Fifty-five percent of the "post-Title IX" generation participated in high school sports, compared to 36% of the "pre-Title IX" generation Because of Title IX, more women have received athletic scholarships and thus the opportunity for higher education than would have been possible otherwise.