An evaluation of the influence of federalism in the texas politics

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An evaluation of the influence of federalism in the texas politics

History[ edit ] Printed in Marchthis political cartoon was drawn in reaction to the newly drawn Congressional electoral district of South Essex County drawn by the Massachusetts legislature to favor the Democratic-Republican Party candidates of Governor Elbridge Gerry over the Federalists.

The caricature satirizes the bizarre shape of a district in Essex County, Massachusetts as a dragon-like "monster. Partisan gerrymandering, which refers to redistricting that favors one political party, has a long tradition in the United States that precedes the election of the First U.

They drew the boundaries of Virginia's 5th congressional district in an unsuccessful attempt to keep James Madison out of the U. When mapped, one of the contorted districts to the north of Boston was said to resemble the shape of a salamander.

Historians widely believe that the Federalist newspaper editors Nathan Haleand Benjamin and John Russell were the instigators, but the historical record does not have definitive evidence as to who created or uttered the word for the first time.

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This cartoon was most likely drawn by Elkanah Tisdalean early 19th-century painter, designer, and engraver who was living in Boston at the time. Gerrymandering soon began to be used to describe not only the original Massachusetts example, but also other cases of district-shape manipulation for partisan gain in other states.

The first known use outside the immediate Boston area came in the Newburyport Herald of Massachusetts on 31 March, and the first known use outside Massachusetts came in the Concord Gazette of New Hampshire on 14 April What may be the first use of the term to describe the redistricting in another state Maryland occurred in the Federal Republican Georgetown, Washington, DC on 12 October There are at least 80 known citations of the word from March through December in American newspapers.

The Republican Party used its control of Congress to secure the admission of more states in territories friendly to their party. A notable example is the admission of Dakota Territory as two states instead of one. By the rules for representation in the Electoral Collegeeach new state carried at least three electoral votes, regardless of its population.

In Pennsylvania, the Republican-dominated state legislature used gerrymandering to help defeat Democratic representative Frank Mascara. Mascara was elected to Congress in Inthe Republican Party altered the boundaries of his original district so much that he was pitted against fellow Democratic candidate John Murtha in the election.

The shape of Mascara's newly drawn district formed a finger that stopped at his street, encompassing his house, but not the spot where he parked his car.

Murtha won the election in the newly formed district. In the state of Ohio, a conversation between Republican officials was recorded that demonstrated that redistricting was being done to aid their political candidates.

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Furthermore, the discussions assessed race of voters as a factor in redistricting, because African-Americans had backed Democratic candidates. Republicans apparently removed approximately 13, African-American voters from the district of Jim Raussena Republican candidate for the House of Representatives, in an attempt to tip the scales in what was once a competitive district for Democratic candidates.

Inthe majority of Republicans in the Texas legislature redistricted the statediluting the voting power of the heavily Democratic county by parceling its residents out to more Republican districts. In the orange district 25 was intended to elect a Democrat while the yellow and pink district 21 and district 10 were intended to elect Republicans.

District 25 was redrawn as the result of a Supreme Court decision. Bandemerthe Supreme Court held that partisan gerrymandering violated the Equal Protection Clausebut the court could not agree on the appropriate constitutional standard against which legal claims of partisan gerrymandering should be evaluated.

Writing for a plurality of the Court, Justice White said that partisan gerrymandering occurred when a redistricting plan was enacted with both the intent and the effect of discriminating against an identifiable political group.

An evaluation of the influence of federalism in the texas politics

Justices Powell and Stevens said that partisan gerrymandering should be identified based on multiple factors, such as electoral district shape and adherence to local government boundaries. Justices O'Connor, Burger, and Rehnquist disagreed with the view that partisan gerrymandering claims were justiciable and would have held that such claims should not be recognized by courts.

Martin[14] did a lower court strike down a redistricting plan on partisan gerrymandering grounds. Writing for a plurality, Justice Scalia said that partisan gerrymandering claims were nonjusticiable. A majority of the court would continue to allow partisan gerrymandering claims to be considered justiciable, but those Justices had divergent views on how such claims should be evaluated.

Whitford [17] a District Court used the efficiency gap statistic to evaluate the claim of partisan gerrymander in Wisconsin's legislative districts.

In the election for the state legislature, the efficiency gap was Three fewer Democrats in the state assembly representing the Milwaukee area.

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Whitford, in which plaintiffs alleged that voting districts were gerrymandered unconstitutionally. The court found that the disparate treatment of Democratic and Republican voters violated the 1st and 14th amendments to the US Constitution.

The case was then dismissed due to lack of standing for the plaintiffs with no decision on the merits being made. The case was then remanded for further proceedings to demonstrate standing.

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania [23] and redrew the districts after the state government failed to comply with the deadline in its order to redraw. Cummings that bipartisan gerrymanders are constitutionally permissible under the Equal Protection Clause.

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In areas where some African-American and other minorities succeeded in registering, some states created districts that were gerrymandered to reduce the voting impact of minorities. Minorities were effectively deprived of their franchise into the s.

With the passage of the Voting Rights Act of and its subsequent amendments, redistricting to carve maps to intentionally diminish the power of voters who were in a racial or linguistic minority, was prohibited.Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.

Our clients know us for our reliability, speed to market, and long-standing razor sharp focus on customer service. Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging. Coercive federalism is a form of federalism in which the federal government pressures the states to change their policies by using regulations, mandates, and conditions (often involving threats to .

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An evaluation of the influence of federalism in the texas politics

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Gerrymandering in the United States - Wikipedia