After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about. Then you will give your thesis. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk.
Letter Writing as Social Practice pages Chapter 1: Introduction, David Baron and Nigel Hall While letters have been used in a variety of disciplines for research, seldom have letters been considered as a particular social and literate practice-instead, they have often been used as supporting evidence to discuss various figures or offer historical context.
Before going into this research framework, they look at a number of social contexts in which such a framework would be helpful to uncover the role of letters: Letters often were used to organize everyday life. In order to study these social contexts, Barton and Hall offer a framework to study the social practice: For instance, we can look toward difference in education and social practices of gender and how they play out in letter writing.
Letters and the Social Grounding of Differentiated Genres, Charles Bazerman Bazerman takes a look at how letters play an interesting role in the emergence of other distinct genres. The letter, as a particular genre, is interesting to observe because of the way the genre can often bazerman writing a letter these social relationships directly: However, it is not simply the verbal text that is involved in the genres of letter, but it was often the delivery of the letter that was also involved in instantiating the genre.
Bazerman positions the ambiguity involved in these delivery procedures as means in which genres evolve and create other distinct genres with distinct purposes and models of reception: People recognize increasing varieties of transactions can be accomplished at a distance through letters and will have models to follow for that kind of transactions.
For instance, Bazerman points to the way the Church used a variety of letter genres to maintain the medieval church bureaucracy grants from monasteries, contractual agreements, deeds of transfer, grants of immunities and privileges, gifts, mutual obligations, etc.
In another example, Bazerman offers the use of letters by rebels during the American Revolution: Massachusetts was the first to issue notes in and other colonies followed suit in following decades.
Looking at scientific journals—which began as personal correspondence between a group of scientists who updated each other on their work—Bazerman notes that as the network expanded to include other nodes with other purposes, the genres itself changed in form, content, and style: Put simply Bazerman is observing how procedures of delivery and circulation, expansions of networks, and reorientations of purposes prompted changes in letters and created distinct genres for these new purposes.
Letters, then, operate as a kind of ur-genre: The Materiality of Letter Writing: A nineteenth century perspective, Nigel Hall Hall sheds some light on the materiality of letter writing: However, Hall is hesitant to accept the metaphor of transparency wholly or too strongly because the materiality of writing does become very visible in certain cases.
He points to a few cases where this occurs: Hall notes that when users select particular writing-related objects for particular task, we also begin to see the materiality of writing.
In moments of deliberate selection, the individual considers choices that also reflect, life styles, images of self, and comfort. Hall focuses much of his attention to letter writing in 19th century Britain to elucidate the role of materiality in letter writing.
It is not a coincidence, then, that the focus on the materiality of writing was tied to a consumer culture: Hall then goes through the different points along the writing process that involve the interaction with writing materials.
A space to write the letter: However, Hall does also note that as we moved away from quills toward metal tipped pens and toward no-ink-blotted pens, desks did not change with these new technologies. He also points to decorative pens as souvenirs for places or memories.
Selecting the writing paper: There was a move toward paper standardization which helped this along. But once we got cheap postage, people went a little crazy on pre-stamped envelopes. As such, children were taught both in knowledge and virtue in order to be the guardians of tradition.
Schultz, then, looks to textbooks and manuals for letter-writing instruction for some insight into what the teaching and learning of letter-writing was like—and what function it had—in the 19th century. In other words, Schultz points out that the writers of these textbooks recognized that defining how one addressed another person—whether it be a sister or friend—would define their relationship itself.
So there were instructions about how to address friends and family in letters that likewise prescribed proper moral behaviors.
While many students did, indeed, participate in enacting these moral codes, the democratizing nature of letter-writing also saw the invitation for resistance against those dominant codes. For instance, Schultz points to an example of a young woman who wrote to her father about politics—seen as potentially taboo at the time.
Schultz points to Raymond Williams who discusses the idea that in any culture, both residual and emergent practices inform the live of citizens: As she writes, she has until recently focused exclusively on the content of the written letters rather than the visual components of the letters or what she refers to as paralinguistic or paraliteracy features: She begins with noting the tactility of the letter and the ways letters are often re-read to re-enact some associate or connection to human lives and experiences outside of the prison experience.
She also notes that when released from prison, while items of clothing and other miscellaneous objects may be left behind, letters are never left behind because these objects are inhabited with social connections.
In her correspondences with the prisoners, she also notes how they describe the role of smell: But also, letters from the outside are valuable for their non-prison smell.Bazerman 1 CHARLES BAZERMAN Calle Anzuelo Santa Barbara, CA phone: , John S.
Knight Visiting Scholar of Writing 8//99 University of Louisville, Watson Distinguished Visiting Professor of Composition Chair’s Letter.
College Composition and . So you can be a fine writer but a terrible paper editor. In writing your academic essay and papers, you need talented editors who can understand the assignment and can make the needed corrections that will improve the quality of your work.
Aug 16, · I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read. It was quite fun in those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy grupobittia.coms: letter-writing, arguing that letters have served as antecedent genres for some of the most powerful forms of text, from business genres (forms, invoices, reports) to the scientific article, to the patent, to the stock-.
Aug 16, · Writing Your Response. Here are six different ways to respond to an essay: You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree.
You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons grupobittia.coms: Dec 23, · Barton & Hall. Letter Writing as Social Practice ( pages). Chapter 1: Introduction, David Baron and Nigel Hall. While letters have been used in a variety of disciplines for research, seldom have letters been considered as a particular social and literate practice-instead, they have often been used as supporting evidence to discuss various figures or offer historical context.