Ageing adult about 60 Each new stage has its typical concerns, activities and problems, and its typical starting age, but adds to, rather than totally replaces, the stages before it. Most importantly each stage has, as we shall see, its characteristic conflict, its seemingly insoluble dilemma which must nevertheless be resolved or surmounted in some way before the next stage can be effectively tackled. Naturally, none of us ever perfectly negotiates this great obstacle course, this growth-by-problem-solving.
The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identityevery action is based upon the pleasure principle.
Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage; two factors contribute to its formation: Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixationcharacterised by passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimismwhich is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation.
In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior.
The style of parenting influences the resolution of the id—ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personalitya person too concerned with neatness and order.
If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder.
It is in this third infantile development stage that children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents; they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring each other and their genitals, and so learn the physical sexual differences between "male" and "female" and the gender differences between "boy" and "girl".
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Oedipuswho unwittingly killed his father, Laiusand sexually possessed his mother, Jocasta.
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Electrawho plotted matricidal revenge with Orestesher brother, against Clytemnestratheir mother, and Aegisthustheir stepfather, for their murder of Agamemnontheir father, cf.
Electraby Sophocles. Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnonby Frederic Leightonc. The boy focuses his libido sexual desire upon his mother, and focuses jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father — because it is he who sleeps with mother.
Whereas boys develop castration anxietygirls develop penis envy that is rooted in anatomic fact: As a result, the girl redirects her desire for sexual union upon father; thus, she progresses towards heterosexual femininity that culminates in bearing a child who replaces the absent penis.
In both sexes, defense mechanisms provide transitory resolutions of the conflict between the drives of the Id and the drives of the Ego. The first defense mechanism is repressionthe blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict.
Unresolved psychosexual competition for the opposite-sex parent might produce a phallic-stage fixation leading a girl to become a woman who continually strives to dominate men viz.
In a boy, a phallic-stage fixation might lead him to become an aggressive, over-ambitious, vain man. Therefore, the satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex are most important in developing the infantile super-ego, because, by identifying with a parent, the child internalizes moralitythereby, choosing to comply with societal rules, rather than having to reflexively comply in fear of punishment.
Latency stage The fourth stage of psychosexual development is the latency stage that spans from the age of six years until pubertywherein the child consolidates the character habits he or she developed in the three, earlier stages of psychologic and sexual development.
Whether or not the child has successfully resolved the Oedipal conflictthe instinctual drives of the id are inaccessible to the Ego, because his or her defense mechanisms repressed them during the phallic stage. Hence, because said drives are latent hidden and gratification is delayed — unlike during the preceding oral, anal, and phallic stages — the child must derive the pleasure of gratification from secondary process-thinking that directs the libidinal drives towards external activities, such as schooling, friendships, hobbies, etc.
The genital stage affords the person the ability to confront and resolve his or her remaining psychosexual childhood conflicts. As in the phallic stage, the genital stage is centered upon the genitalia, but the sexuality is consensual and adult, rather than solitary and infantile.
Scientific[ edit ] A usual criticism of the scientific experimental validity of the Freudian psychology theory of human psychosexual development is that Sigmund Freud — was personally fixated upon human sexuality ; therefore, he favored defining human development with a normative theory of psychologic and sexual development.
Yet, the boy Hans was unable to relate fearing horses to fearing his father.
The psychoanalyst Freud noted that "Hans had to be told many things that he could not say himself" and that "he had to be presented with thoughts, which he had, so far, shown no signs of possessing". To integrate the female libido sexual desire to psychosexual development, he proposed that girls develop " penis envy ".
In response, the German Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horneycounter-proposed that girls instead develop " Power envy ", rather than penis envy. Contemporary criticism also questions the universality of the Freudian theory of personality Id, Ego, Super-ego discussed in the essay On Narcissismwherein he said that "it is impossible to suppose that a unity, comparable to the ego can exist in the individual from the very start".
Contemporary cultural considerations have questioned the normative presumptions of the Freudian psychodynamic perspective that posits the son—father conflict of the Oedipal complex as universal and essential to human psychologic development.
He reported that in the insular matriarchal society of the Trobriand, boys are disciplined by their maternal uncles, not their fathers; impartial, avuncular discipline.
In Sex and Repression in Savage SocietyMalinowski reported that boys dreamed of feared uncles, not of beloved fathers, thus, power — not sexual jealousy — is the source of Oedipal conflict in such non—Western societies.
In Human Behavior in Global Perspective: Postulates of this Model: Psychosexual development includes constituents: The libido contains conceptual, Platonic, erotic and sexual components.Piaget and Vygotsky: The Psychology of Cognitive Development - This essay concerns the psychology of cognitive development.
Cognitive development can be explained in terms of the acquisition, construction and progressive change in thought processes such as memory, problem-solving and decision-making that occurs from childhood to .
Successive governments have shown a commitment to developing the early childhood care and education workforce into a graduate profession and first-class professional body, equipping those at the frontline to support and enhance children’s development . Hi, I need to do a word essay on any one theory that is related to physical development in children.
I have considered Jean Piaget’s theory but I can’t find much information on it except for his theory on cognitive development. Developmental Stages Essay Adolescence is probably the most difficult period in life of every individual since it is a transitional stage between childhood and adulthood.
In this period adolescent undergo significant changes in physiological, psychological and social aspects. EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future.
Early Emotional Child Development - Introduction In this essay I am going to show my understanding of a child's early emotional development based on the psychoanalytical view of child development.