Culture background Russian culture has a long history and tradition and Russians are very proud of it. Russians consider themselves as a well educated nation. They read a lot, books are cheap, and one can afford to buy books a month without serious damage to a family budget.
A Social and Economic History Book: University of Sunderland Citation: A Social and Economic History, review no. After the Bolshevik seizure of power in Octoberthe memory of the war was subsumed into the history of the revolutionary process. The war was a difficult subject for the new rulers of Soviet Russia, since they viewed it as an expansionist conflict, embarked upon by Russia — and the other European Great Powers — as an inevitable consequence of their imperialist ambitions.
Despite the death of some two million Russian soldiers during the war, the Bolshevik regime concentrated on the events of in their historical treatment of the period, seeing the war as almost incidental to the triumphal progress of the revolutionary movement. Gatrell draws on a very wide range of scholarship — both Russian and western — to provide the first single-volume history of the impact of the war on Russian economy and society.
The book begins with an account of the military dimension of the war, analysing not just Tsarist military performance but also the direct impact of mobilisation on the population. Gatrell is well placed to appreciate the social impact of the military disasters that befell Russia in and Refugees in Russia during World War One Bloomington, to discuss the enormous population displacement that accompanied the Russian retreats of the first two years of the war.
Military reverses had a direct impact on the ordinary people of Russia and Gatrell gives a vivid depiction of the chaos and confusion that ensued from defeat, as peasant families had to abandon their farm machinery and other basic items of rural life.
Gatrell suggests that the war again showed how far apart the government was from educated Russian inflation, but he is careful not to labour the point. The Russian social elite Russian inflation committed to achieving victory in the war and made significant efforts to assist the national war effort.
Urban and rural local government united around the Union of Towns and the Union of Zemstvos, Russian inflation business established war industries committees to help in the mobilisation of the Russian economy.
The civilian administration was much less inclined to cooperate with these efforts than the military, allowing the divisions between Russian elites to deepen.
In some ways, Russia was in a strong position to withstand the stresses that war placed on its economy: Difficulties arose, however, in transporting raw materials to the main manufacturing centres: The army took many skilled workers and the stresses on those remaining in factories grew as the war progressed.
The First World War was an expensive conflict, requiring sustained expenditure on arms and military equipment by the state. It cost Russia fifteen times more than the Russo-Japanese war of —5 and the government had to resort to financing the war by taking out loans and printing money.
As a result, inflation roared ahead: Gatrell shows that retail prices in Moscow doubled in the first two years of the war and then accelerated dramatically in and earlymore than trebling in twelve months.
Food supply, however, presented more severe difficulties. The agricultural labour force fell significantly during the war, and this drop also concealed important changes in the composition of the workforce.
Bywomen outnumbered men by more than two to one, with many of these men being those who were too old to be conscripted into the army. Gatrell shows that, despite this, the levels of agricultural production did not fall dramatically during the war.
Food supply problems arose because government intervention to ensure the army was fed and to control prices disrupted a sophisticated system of grain distribution. The changes in the distribution of the population brought about by the concentration of the army in the west and the movements of refugees destabilised the distribution system for food.
Local authorities attempted to prevent grain leaving their own regions, while government price controls meant that some peasant farmers were unwilling to market their grain.
|Truth & Beauty (… and Russian Finance)||The purpose of this report is to show what has been happening to the rate of inflation of Russia for the past 18 to 20 years. However, most such resources are located in remote and climatically unfavorable areas that are difficult to develop and far from Russian ports.|
|Table - 2018 inflation Russia (CPI)||Russian interest rates fall following sustained drop in inflation 20 February Sian Jones Central Bank of Russia cuts its key interest rate to 7. The start of saw another reduction in the interest rate set by the Central Bank of Russia, amid lacklustre inflationary pressures.|
|Get the print edition||Vladimir Putin should go down in history as one of the lucky ones who happened to be in the right place at the right time, as Talleyrand said about Lafayette, but accomplished little that was positive. Putin's luck was that he was anointed president by President Boris Yeltsin|
|Current Inflation Rate||A double-whammy of collapsing oil prices and Western sanctions is driving up inflation. Cash is flooding out of the country and the risk that some Russian companies may default is increasing.|
Even though, as Gatrell pointed out, there had been more severe food shortages in Russia in the previous twenty-five years, the problems experienced during the war were blamed firmly on the inadequacy of the government. The revolution that overwhelmed Nicholas II appeared to offer the opportunity for Russian society to coalesce around the new Provisional Government.
The political pressures that destroyed any consensus during have been exhaustively analysed elsewhere, and Gatrell shows how these strains were reflected in economic issues. Ordinary Russians turned on the state and the social elite as political and economic anarchy intensified across the empire.
Their actions were reciprocated: The failure of the Provisional Government was comprehensive and opened the way for the Bolshevik seizure of power in October Four months later, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and its participation in the First World War ended, but civil war and foreign intervention meant that Bolshevik Russia continued to be at war until early The disruption that engulfed Russia after the February revolution and the toppling of the Tsar accelerated a process of economic and social collapse that had gathered pace during latebut it is impossible to disentangle this from the effects of military uncertainty in the wake of the revolution.
Gatrell recognises these difficulties in his penultimate chapter by concentrating on the issues that were affecting the Russian people as the war progressed: Gatrell argues that most of the problems that Russia encountered during the war were common to the main combatant states.
Each of them had difficulty in making the change to a war economy and shortages of equipment were not confined to Russia. Food supply was also a problem, especially in Germany and Italy, while violence and revolution were not confined to Russia at the end of the war.
The German and Austro-Hungarian monarchies collapsed under the weight of military defeat; civil war engulfed Ireland and Finland in the aftermath of war while Hungary experienced a short-lived revolution.
The First World War also exacerbated social tensions across Europe. Gatrell suggests that antagonism grew between social groups as ordinary people grew more and more resentful of the privations that they were enduring, while traditional elites prospered.Dec 15, · A double-whammy of collapsing oil prices and Western sanctions is driving up inflation.
Cash is flooding out of the country and the risk that some Russian companies may default is increasing. Russia - Labour Unemployment Rate in Russia fell to percent from percent and Inflation Rate went up to percent from percent in Sep Unemployment Rate all-time average stands at percent and it's projection for Oct is The trend of rising consumer price inflation in Russia continued in September, though it remained below the target level of 4 percent in annual terms.
In the first eight months of , Russia’s federal budget balance strengthened, aided by higher oil revenues and lower expenditures.
Russia inflation is seen slowing to a record low by the end of the year before rebounding to near the central bank's targeted level of 4 percent in , a Reuters poll showed on Thursday. Russia’s State Statistics Service said the worst of the food-price increases brought on by sanctions and the drop in the value of the ruble late last year have begun to abate.
After a period of soaring inflation, it now appears that the Russian monetary authorities have stabilized the growth in prices to a manageable level. By the end of .