Intensive, Selective and Exclusive Distribution Article shared by:
Biography[ edit ] Campbell was born inand completed his undergraduate education in psychology at the University of California, Berkeleywhere he and his younger sister, Fayette, graduated first and second, respectively, in the class of After serving in the U.
He taught at Lehigh University, which established the Donald T.
Campbell Social Science Research Prizes. Prior to that he was on the faculty of Maxwell School of Syracuse University—, and Northwestern University from to By Campbell's own account, this project was at least premature.
Work[ edit ] Campbell made contributions in a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, sociologyanthropologybiologystatisticsand philosophy. A major focus throughout his career was the study of false knowledge, biases, and prejudices, and how these relate to matters ranging from race relations to academic disciplines where erroneous theories are perpetuated by those with vested interests in them.
Multitrait-multimethod matrix[ edit ] Campbell argued that the sophisticated use of many approaches, each with its own distinct Selective inventory control measurable flaws, was required to design reliable research projects and to ensure convergent and discriminant validity.
The paper he wrote with Donald W. Fiske to present this thesis, "Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix ",  is one of the most frequently cited papers in the social science literature.
Blind variation and selective retention[ edit ] Blind variation and selective retention BVSR is a phrase introduced by Campbell to describe the most fundamental principle underlying cultural evolution. For example, it can also be applied to scientific discovery, memetic evolution, or genetic programming.
As such, it forms a foundation for what has later been called universal Darwinism. Evolutionary epistemology[ edit ] Applying the BVSR principle to the evolution of knowledge, Campbell founded the domain of evolutionary epistemology.
Thus, the BVSR mechanism explains creativity, but also the evolution of instinctive knowledge, and of our cognitive abilities in general. He argued for a more collaborative method of public policy that involved various stakeholders and that used experimentation and data as a guide for decision making.
The vision of this was laid out in his essay, "The Experimenting Society".
Campbell did not start out intending to be a program evaluator, but his devotion to understanding causalityhuman behavior, and how to solve social questions led him there.
That is, there was "a redundant piling up of highly similar specialties leaving interdisciplinary gaps". He wrote that often the approach taken to dealing with these gaps was to encourage multidisciplinary scholars, meaning those who are knowledgeable and competent in multiple areas, but that this was ill-guided because the level of knowledge that makes for good scholars requires specialisation.
In his view, a wiser approach would be "invent[ing] alternative social organizations that will permit the flourishing of narrow interdisciplinary specialties.
Fiske, "Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix, In: Blanksten and Raymond W. A reinterpretation of evolutionary theory, pp.
Journal of Social Issues 28 3 Reduction and related problems, pp. Popper edited by P. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge, pp. Studies in evolutionary epistemology, pp. Evolutionary dynamics of organizations, pp.
The ubiquity of the variation-and-selective-retention ratchet in emergent organizational complexity.There are four basic characteristics that describe how all herbicides work: emergence, selectivity, persistence and translocation.
Understanding the importance of each characteristic will help you read product labels and properly select the weed killer that’s best for your yard. ar - inventory management supply policy - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
Uftring Auto Group pre-owned inventory, including used cars, used trucks, used vans, used sport utilities, bargain vehicles, local one owner trades, program cars, factory executives and much more. Serving the Peoria, Pekin, Morton, Washington and East . Anchor: #i Section 3: STEP Yearlong Proposals Anchor: #i Introduction.
Selective Traffic Enforcement Program (STEP) projects reimburse for overtime activities by local law enforcement to reduce crashes by focusing enforcement efforts on high-crash areas called Enforcement Zones.
Nov 21, · Dear Users, I have compiled selective Finacle menu options / Finacle commands for your ready reference. I hope this post will help you to master Finacle Package. few commands may vary from Bank to Bank but most of them are common to . 06 Reversible Lane Control signs shall consist of a white background with a black legend and border, except for the Rd sign, where the color red is used..
07 Symbol signs, such as the Rd sign, shall consist of the appropriate symbol in the upper portion of the sign with the appropriate times of the day and days of the week below it.
All times of the day and days of the week shall be.